Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI)

For individuals who rely on wheelchairs for mobility, performing transfers is essential to achieving independence with activities of daily living. For example, transfers are required for getting into and out of bed, on and off a bathtub/shower seat, commode seat, motor vehicle seat and so on. Unfortunately transfers (along with wheelchair propulsion, weight relief, and overhead activities) are believed to largely contribute to the development of shoulder pain and injury.

In order to understand the injury mechanisms, our Clinical Biomechanics Lab has conducted research on the influence of different transfer techniques and environmental setups. We summarized our findings to develop the Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI) – the first clinical tool for evaluating transfer skills in detail. We also proved that the TAI is reliable and functional in serving as a guideline for clinicians to evaluate and teach transfer skills. Recently, we have modified the TAI (TAI 4.0) to a version that can be used by a rater or as a self-assessment measure.

A pervious version of the TAI (TAI 3.0) and corresponding training materials can be found here:

Below you can find a list of publications related to the TAI: